sábado, 16 de fevereiro de 2013


Heteronym (literature)

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Fernando Pessoa

In 1928, at the Abel Pereira da Fonseca wine house, Fanqueiros Street, Lisbon.
The literary concept of heteronym, invented by Portuguese writer and poet Fernando Pessoa, refers to one or more imaginary character(s) created by a writer to write in different styles. Heteronyms differ from noms de plume (or pseudonyms, from the Greek "False Name") in that the latter are just false names, while the former are characters having their own supposed physiques, biographies and writing styles.[1]



[edit]Pessoa's heteronyms

In Pessoa's case, there are at least 70 heteronyms (according to the latest count by Pessoa's editor Teresa Rita Lopes); some of them are relatives or know each other; they criticise and translate each other's works. Pessoa's three chief heteronyms are Alberto Caeiro, Ricardo Reis and Álvaro de Campos; the latter two consider the former their master. There are also two whom Pessoa called semi-heteronymsBernardo Soares and the Baron of Teive, who are semi-autobiographical characters who write in prose, "a mere mutilation" of the Pessoa personality. There is, lastly, anorthonymFernando Pessoa, the namesake of the author, who also considers Caeiro his master.
The heteronyms dialogue with each other and even with Pessoa in what he calls "the theatre of being" or "drama in people". They sometimes intervened in Pessoa's social life: during Pessoa's only attested romance, a jealous Campos wrote letters to the girl, who enjoyed the game and wrote back.
Pessoa, also an amateur astrologue, created in 1915 the heteronym Raphael Baldaya, a long bearded astrologue. He elaborated horoscopes of his main heteronyms in order to determine their personalities.
Fernando Pessoa on the heteronyms
How do I write in the name of these three? Caeiro, through sheer and unexpected inspiration, without knowing or even suspecting that I’m going to write in his name. Ricardo Reis, after an abstract meditation, which suddenly takes concrete shape in an ode. Campos, when I feel a sudden impulse to write and don’t know what. (My semi-heteronym Bernardo Soares, who in many ways resembles Álvaro de Campos, always appears when I'm sleepy or drowsy, so that my qualities of inhibition and rational thought are suspended; his prose is an endless reverie. He’s a semi-heteronym because his personality, although not my own, doesn’t differ from my own but is a mere mutilation of it. He’s me without my rationalism and emotions. His prose is the same as mine, except for certain formal restraint that reason imposes on my own writing, and his Portuguese is exactly the same – whereas Caeiro writes bad Portuguese, Campos writes it reasonably well but with mistakes such as "me myself" instead of "I myself", etc.., and Reis writes better than I, but with a purism I find excessive...)
Fernando Pessoa, Letter to Adolfo Casais Monteiro, 13.01.1935, in The Book of Disquiet, Penguin Classics, 2002, p. 474.
George Steiner on the heteronyms
Pseudonymous writing is not rare in literature or philosophy (Kierkegaard provides a celebrated instance). 'Heteronyms', as Pessoa called and defined them, are something different and exceedingly strange. For each of his 'voices', Pessoa conceived a highly distinctive poetic idiom and technique, a complex biography, a context of literary influence and polemics and, most arrestingly of all, subtle interrelations and reciprocities of awareness. Octavio Paz defines Caeiro as 'everything that Pessoa is not and more'. He is a man magnificently at home in nature, a virtuoso of pre-Christian innocence, almost a Portuguese teacher of Zen. Reis is a stoic Horatian, a pagan believer in fate, a player with classical myths less original than Caeiro, but more representative of modern symbolism. De Campos emerges as a Whitmanesque futurist, a dreamer in drunkenness, the Dionysian singer of what is oceanic and windswept in Lisbon. None of this triad resembles the metaphysical solitude, the sense of being an occultist medium which characterise Pessoa's 'own' intimate verse.
George Steiner, "A man of many parts", in The Observer, Sunday, 3 June 2001.
Richard Zenith on the heteronyms
Álvaro de Campos, the poet-persona who grew old with Pessoa and held a privileged place in his inventor’s hearts. Soares, the assistant bookkeeper and Campos, the naval engineer never met in the pen-and-paper drama of Pessoa’s heteronyms, who were frequently pitted against one other, but the two writer-characters were spiritual brothers, even if their wordly occupations were at odds. Campos wrote prose, as well as poetry, and much of it reads at it came, so to speak, from the hand of Soares. Pessoa was often unsure who was writing when he wrote, and it’s curious that the very first item among the more than 25,000 pieces that make up his archives in the National Library of Lisbon bears the heading A. de C. (?) or B. de D. (or something else).
Richard Zenith, introduction to The Book of Disquiet, Penguin Classics, 2002, p. XI.

[edit]Alberto Caeiro

According to a letter by Fernando Pessoa, he collected the name of this important heteronym from a pharmacy in Lisbon called A. Caeiro. Pessoa created this heteronym as the "Master" of his "brothers", including Pessoa itself. Caeiro was a humble man of poor education, but a great poet "naif". Howhever, his poetry is plenty of philosophy. He wrote "Poemas Inconjuntos" (Disconnected Poems) and "O Guardador de Rebanhos" (The Keeper of Sheep), published by Fernando Pessoa in his "Art Journal" Athena in 1924-25.

[edit]Ricardo Reis

Astrological chart of the heteronym Ricardo Reis by Fernando Pessoa.
This heteronym was created by Pessoa as a Portuguese doctor born in Oporto, in September 19, 1887. Reis supposedly studied at a boarding school run byjesuits in which he received a classical education. He was an amateur latinistand poet; politically a monarchist, he exiled in Brazil after the defeat of a monarchical rebellion against the Portuguese Republic in 1919. Ricardo Reis reveals his Epicureanism and Stoicism in the «Odes by Ricardo Reis», published by Pessoa in 1924, in his literary journal Athena.
Since Pessoa didn't determine the death of Reis, one can assume that he survived his author who died in 1935. In The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis(1984), Portuguese nobel prize José Saramago rebuilds, in his own personal outlook, the literary world of this heteronym after 1935, creating a dialog between Ricardo Reis and the ghost of his author.

[edit]Álvaro de Campos

This heteronym was created by Fernando Pessoa as an alter ego who inherited his role from Alexander Search and this one from Charles Robert Anon. The latter was created when Pessoa lived in Durban, while Search was created in 1906, when Pessoa was a student at Lisbon's University, in search of his Portuguese cultural identity, after his return from Durban. Anon was supposedly English, while Search, although English, was born in Lisbon. After the Portuguese republican revolution, in 1910, and consequent patriotic atmosphere, Pessoa dropped his English heteronyms and Álvaro de Campos was created as a Portuguese alter ego. Álvaro de Campos, born in 1890, was supposedly a Portuguese naval engineer graduated inGlasgow. He sailed to the Orient, living experiences that he describes in his poem «Opiarium». He also wrote «Lisbon Revisited (1923)» and «Lisbon Revisited (1926)», while unemployed in Portugal. Thought his master works are «Tobacco Shop» and the «Odes»: «Ode Triumphal» and «Ode Maritime», published in the literary journal Orpheu, in 1915, and other unfinished. Campos was a decadent poet, but he embraced futurism; his poetry was strongly influenced by Walt Whitman and Marinetti.

[edit]List of Pessoa's heteronyms

1Fernando António Nogueira PessoahimselfCommercial correspondent in Lisbon
2Fernando PessoaorthonymPoet and prose writer
3Fernando PessoaautonymPoet and prose writer
4Fernando PessoaheteronymPoet, a pupil of Alberto Caeiro
5Alberto CaeiroheteronymPoet, author of 'O guardador de Rebanhos','O Pastor Amoroso' and 'Poemas inconjuntos', master of Fernando Pessoa heteronyms, Álvaro de Campos, Ricardo Reis, António Mora and Coelho Pacheco
6Ricardo ReisheteronymPoet and prose writer, author of 'Odes' and texts on the work of Alberto Caeiro.Biographical note: (Oporto, 1887–1936). He graduated in medicine and is an unconditional admirer of the Greek civilisation above all others, and considers himself to be an expatriate from Greece. Being a royalist he chooses to emigrate to Brazil in 1919 (Portuguese monarchy had been overthrown in 1910). In his neoclassical odes he ponders on the briefness of life, the inevitability of death and the helplessness of the human condition. This “sad epicure” tries to find some contentment through the acceptance of fate and self-discipline lives by Horatio’s a motto: carpe diem (seize the day).
7Frederico Reisheteronym/para-heteronymEssayist, brother of Ricardo Reis, upon whom he writes
8Álvaro de CamposheteronymPoet and prose writer, a pupil of Alberto Caeiro. Biographical note: Álvaro de Campos. (Tavira, Algarve, 1890 - ?). He studies naval engineering in Scotland. He feels a foreigner wherever he is. Suffocated by a tedious and monotonous existence, failing to see the meaning of life, he looks for new sensations and travels to the Far East. When he comes back he is a renewed man. He embraces the futuristic movement and worships industrialisation and scientific and technological progress, with its hectic relentless rhythm and continuous change. There is an ecstasy of the senses, his relationship with machines and charcoal and steel is almost erotic. But in the background of this modern world lurk the shadows of the assembly line, the pollution, the emptiness of material things. The darkness of what is to come —eventually Campos tires. In his third phase, profoundly disenchanted with the present, he evokes the long-gone days of his perfectly happy childhood.
9António MoraheteronymPhilosopher and sociologist, theorist of Neopaganism, a pupil of Alberto Caeiro
10Claude Pasteurheteronym/semi-heteronymFrench, translator of "CADERNOS DE RECONSTRUÇÃO PAGÃ" conducted by Antonio Mora
11Bernardo Soaresheteronym/semi-heteronymPoet and prose writer, author of the 'Book of Disquiet'
12Vicente Guedesheteronym/semi-heteronymTranslator, poet, and director of Ibis Press, author of a paper
13Gervásio Guedesheteronym/para-heteronymAuthor of the text 'A Coroação de Jorge Quinto'
14Alexander SearchheteronymPoet and short story writer
15Charles James Searchheteronym/para-heteronymTranslator and essayist, brother of Alexander Search
16Jean-Méluret of Seoulheteronym/proto-heteronymFrench Poet and Essayist
17Rafael BaldayaheteronymAstrologer and author of 'Tratado da Negação' and 'Princípios de Metaphysica Esotérica'
18Barão de TeivoheteronymProse writer, author of "Educação do Stoica" and "Daphnis e Chloe"
19Charles Robert Anonheteronym/semi-heteronymPoet, philosopher and story writer
20A. A. Crossepseudonym/proto-heteronymAuthor and Puzzle-solver
21Thomas Crosseheteronym/proto-heteronymEnglish epic character/occultist, popularised in Portuguese culture
22I. I. Crosseheteronym/para-heteronym----
23David Merrickheteronym/semi-heteronymPoet, storyteller and Playwright
24Lucas Merrickheteronym/para-heteronymShort story writer, perhaps brother David Merrick
25Pêro Botelhoheteronym/pseudonymShort story writer and author of Letters
26Abílio Quaresmaheteronym/character/meta-heteronymA character inspired by Botelho Pêro and author of short detective stories
27Inspector Guedescharacter/meta-heteronym?A character inspired by Botelho Pêro and author of short detective stories
28Uncle Porkpseudonym/characterA character inspired by Botelho Pêro and author of short detective stories
29Frederick Wyattalias/heteronymPoet and prose writer (in the English language)
30Rev. Walter WyattcharacterPossibly brother of Frederick Wyatt
31Alfred WyattcharacterAnother brother of Frederick Wyatt/a resident of Paris
32Maria Joséheteronym/proto-heteronymWrote and signed "A Carta da Corcunda para o Serralheiro"
33Chevalier de Paspseudonym/proto-heteronymAuthor of poems and letters
34Efbeedee Pashaheteronym/proto-heteronymAuthor of humoristic "Stories"
35Faustino Antunes/A. Moreiraheteronym/pseudonymPsychologist, author of "Ensaio sobre a Intuição"
36Carlos Ottoheteronym/proto-heteronymPoet and author of "Tratado de Lucta Livre"
37Michael Ottopseudonym/para-heteronymProbably brother of Carlos Otto who was entrusted with the translation into English of "Tratado de Lucta Livre"
38Sebastian Knightproto-heteronym/alias
39Horace James Faberheteronym/semi-heteronymshort story writer and essayist (in English)
40Navasheteronym/para-heteronymTranslated Horace James Faber in Portuguese
41Pantaleãoheteronym/proto-heteronymPoet and prose
42Torquato Fonseca Mendes da Cunha Reyheteronym/meta-heteronymDeceased author of a text, Pantaleão decided to publish
43Joaquim Moura Costaproto-heteronym/semi-heteronymsatirical poet, Republican activist, member of "O PHOSPHORO"
44Sher Henayproto-heteronym/pseudonymCompiler and author of the preface of a sensationalist anthology in English
45Anthony Gomessemi-heteronym/characterPhilosopher, author of "Historia Cómica do Affonso Çapateiro"
46Professor Trocheeproto-heteronym/pseudonymAuthor of an essay with humorous advice for young poets
47Willyam Links EskcharacterSigned a letter written in English on 13/4/1905
48António de Seabrapseudonym/proto-heteronymLiterary critic
49João Craveiropseudonym/proto-heteronymJournalist, follower of Sidónio Pereira
50TaguspseudonymCollaborator in "NATAL MERCURY" (Durban, South Africa)
51Pipa Gomesdraft heteronymCollaborator in "O PHOSPHORO"
52Ibischaracter/a pseudonymA character from Pessoa's childhood, accompanying him until the end of his life/also signed poems
53Dr. Gaudencio Turnipsproto-heteronym/pseudonymDirector of "O PALRADOR", English-Portuguese journalist and humorist
54Pipproto-heteronym/pseudonymPoet, humorous anecdotes. Predecessor of Dr. Pancrazio
55Dr. Pancrazioproto-heteronym/pseudonymStoryteller, poet and creator of charades
56Luís António Congoproto-heteronym/pseudonymCollaborator in "O PALRADOR", columnist and presenter of Lanca Eduardo
57Eduardo Lanceproto-heteronym/pseudonymLuso-Brazilian poet
58A. Francisco de Paula Angardproto-heteronym/pseudonymCollaborator in "O PALRADOR", author of "textos scientificos"
59Pedro da Silva Salles/Zé Padproto-heteronym/aliasAuthor and director of the section of anecdotes at "O PALRADOR"
60José Rodrigues do Valle/Scicioproto-heteronym/alias"O PALRADOR", author of charades and 'literary manager'
61Dr. Caloiroproto-heteronym/pseudonym"O PALRADOR", reporter and author of "A pesca das pérolas"
62Adolph Moscowproto-heteronym/pseudonym"O PALRADOR", novelist, author of "Os Rapazes de Barrowby"
63Marvell Kischproto-heteronym/pseudonymAuthor of a novel announced in "O PALRADOR", called "A Riqueza de um Doido"
64Gabriel Keeneproto-heteronym/pseudonymAuthor of a novel announced in "O PALRADOR", called "Em Dias de Perigo"
65Sableton-Kayproto-heteronym/pseudonymAuthor of a novel announced in "O PALRADOR", called "A Lucta Aérea"
66Morris & Theodorpseudonym"O PALRADOR", author of charades
67Diabo Azulpseudonym"O PALRADOR", author of charades
68Parrypseudonym"O PALRADOR", author of charades
69Gallião Pequenopseudonym"O PALRADOR", author of charades
70Urban Accursioalias"O PALRADOR", author of charades
71Cecíliapseudonym"O PALRADOR", author of charades
72José rasteiroproto-heteronym/pseudonym"O PALRADOR", author of proverbs and riddles
73Nympha Negrapseudonym"O PALRADOR", author of charades
74Diniz da Silvapseudonym/proto-heteronymAuthor of the poem "Loucura" and collaborator in "EUROPE"
75Herr PrositpseudonymTranslator of 'O Estudante de Salamanca' by Espronceda
76Henry Moreproto-heteronymAuthor and prose writer
78J. M. Hyslopcharacter?Poet
79Vadooisf ?Character?Poet

[edit]Other writers and their heteronyms


  1. ^ ZENITH, Richard (2002), The Book of Disquiet, Penguin Classics, 2002.


See the introductory parts in:
  • Fernando Pessoa & Co: Selected Poems, edited and translated by Richard Zenith, Grove Press, 1999
  • The Selected Prose of Fernando Pessoa, edited and translated by Richard Zenith, Grove Press, 2002
  • The Book of Disquiet, edited and translated by Richard Zenith, Penguin classics, 2003